The present report is submitted pursuant to paragraph 16 of Security Council resolution 2634 (2022), in which the Council requested the Secretary-General to report, within five months and on an exceptional basis in advance of the 10-year anniversary of the Code of Conduct concerning the Repression of Piracy, Armed Robbery against Ships and Illicit Maritime Activity in West and Central Africa (Yaoundé Code of Conduct), on the situation of piracy and armed robbery at sea in the Gulf of Guinea and its underlying causes, including any possible and potential linkages with terrorism in West and Central Africa and the Sahel, on the United Nations support and contributions, and on any recommendations for further supporting and enhancing national efforts and regional and international cooperation towards combating piracy and armed robbery at sea in the Gulf of Guinea.
The report covers the period from 1 January 2021 to 31 August 2022 and highlights major trends and developments on the subject. The report is based on information and inputs provided by the United Nations system, including the Counter-Terrorism Committee Executive Directorate, the Department of Political and Peacebuilding Affairs, the United Nations Regional Office for Central Africa (UNOCA), the Office of Counter-Terrorism, the United Nations Office on Drugs and Crime (UNODC) and the United Nations Office for West Africa and the Sahel (UNOWAS), as well as by subregional and regional organizations, including the Economic Community of Central African States (ECCAS), the Economic Community of West African States (ECOWAS), the Gulf of Guinea Commission and the Interregional Coordination Centre for the Implementation of the Regional Strategy for Maritime Safety and Security in Central and West Africa. In addition, the Secretariat consulted with Member States and was provided information by Benin, Brazil, Cameroon, China, Côte d’Ivoire, Equatorial Guinea, France, Gabon, Germany, Ghana, India, Ireland, Japan, Nigeria, Norway, the Russian Federation and the United Kingdom of Great Britain and Northern Ireland.
The report contains an assessment of the situation and impact of piracy and armed robbery at sea, including its possible links with terrorism, and examines the political, legal and operational activities that have been undertaken by Member States, regional and subregional organizations, the United Nations system and its partners to combat piracy and armed robbery at sea in the Gulf of Guinea. It is acknowledged that there has been a decrease, since April 2021, in instances of piracy and armed robbery at sea in the region, and the report concludes with observations and recommendations on ways to further enhance national efforts and regional and international cooperation to sustain the gains made. Overall, the report underscores the importance of concerted global action to ensure the full and meaningful operationalization of the Yaoundé Architecture, particularly in the context of the tenth anniversary, in 2023, of the Yaoundé Code of Conduct.